Development Cooperation in a Fractured Global Order: An Arduous Transition

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It is further stated Teekens , pp. In other sectors, modern small-scale industry could function at an intermediate technology level where growth and employment objectives are reconciled. Such options exist in both basic consumer goods for example, processed meat, milking products, dairy products, clothing and shoes and in intermediate goods industries for example, textiles, leather, wood, metal products.

A selective type of import-substitution policy, based on a criterion of meeting basic needs, is proposed. Such a selective policy must not discriminate against potential export industries. Finally, Teekens stressed the role of an income-redistribution policy for low-income groups, particularly its importance in expanding the domestic market. Seven had followed courses or technical careers for an average of 2 years.

Only one of the entrepreneurs had not benefited from university or technical studies, although this entrepreneur had attended a secondary school that offered technical components in its curriculum. Most of the entrepreneurs had had previous working experience in the same field, which the author considered a form of training. In the context of the Technology Policy Group of the Junta del Acuerdo de Cartagena and under the responsibility of Salazar de Buckle of the Andean Technological Development Projects, the final products were commercialized under the name Chicolac Guevara On the basis of multidisciplinary and multinational teamwork, several technological alternatives could be developed to solve critical nutritional problems in these developing regions.

The cases reviewed in the previous section show a diversity in technology choice, economic policy orientation, and interaction among the parties involved. The evidence from successful initiatives suggests that meeting basic needs is intrinsically related, among other things, to making significant investment in education and health and to having clear priorities, including the targeting of the appropriate groups. The cases reviewed also indicate that satisfying the basic needs of the bulk of the population holds a key position in the development agendas of many developing countries, although it is far from being accomplished; indeed, in some cases efforts have deteriorated.

However, the role that technologies play in satisfying basic needs has so far received only limited attention. To look forward, therefore, it is vital to examine the satisfaction of basic needs together with the role of technologies in production and services, including the contribution that new technologies can make to upgrading production processes and the knowledge base of skills.

This appears to favour pluralistic and pragmatic approaches to technology. The studies stress the importance of a suitable macroeconomic policy environment embracing industrial and trade policies, investment approaches, and price policies to ensure favourable terms of trade for rural sectors. Specific technology policies are needed to improve the competitiveness of small enterprises, promote technological improvements, upgrade the quality of products, and ensure adequate quality control.

In these efforts, human-development programs are considered crucial. Six integrating themes are identified in this report as a focus for the recommendations. The pillars are education, access to information, participation, health, basic infrastructure, and small-scale economic activities. The economic gains to be made from meeting basic needs are most distinct in education. Investment in primary education in developing countries has very high rates of monetary return, both for society and for the individual UNCTAD As well, there are mutually reinforcing nonmonetary returns, especially from the education of women and the resulting reduced child mortality, altered fertility patterns, and improved human development UNCTAD Differences in education are extremely important in explaining differences in income.

Donors and nations suffering serious deprivation could make high-quality education a cornerstone of their basic-needs strategies. The concept of education used here goes beyond the traditional meaning that is, almost exclusively the process of formal education. Education intended to enable the poor to gain access to and understand technology must create the necessary instruments for this end.

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The following objectives are suggested:. Education expenditures and curricula should be carefully reviewed and evaluated for their ability to meet these objectives. Nations with significant shortfalls in meeting basic needs would benefit. These nations could thus determine whether the composition and pattern of their investment in education are consonant with optimal social returns and basic-needs objectives. Such nations should make sure that students are taught science in a manner that is meaningful and are exposed to production techniques relevant to future income-generating activities.

There should also be awareness of the new, effective technologies used in education, such as computer networking and other microelectronics-based tools for learning. Technical assistance and extension services for MSE s can reach the poor through delivery systems that function well. For an example of a successful urban delivery system in Ghana, see ILO For a description of a more ambitious, experimental biovillage in India, see M. Swaminathan Foundation Careful, comprehensive surveys could be made of existing programs for the technical improvement of small enterprises, and the programs that seem best suited to the circumstances could be adopted.

International agencies can furnish the raw material, for example, through evaluative case studies. Such surveys have been initiated by specialized United Nations agencies, for example, the ILO in the case of the delivery system for Ghana. International financial institutions and NGO s can also play an important role. Clearly, overall responsibility for providing education to the very poor rests with national governments, although at regional and local levels there could be valuable contributions, not least of which would be to make suitable adjustments for local circumstances.

For training, private- and public-sector partnerships may well be practicable. Donors and education administrators should possibly give first priority to teaching teachers and training trainers, rather than to building new schools. This is of the utmost importance. Information is an essential pillar in technologies for basic needs. Students and teachers in low-income communities, striving to keep abreast of the changing economic, political, social, and technical. Information is basic to participatory action and movements to empower poor populations. Information is extremely useful for smaller enterprises that need to know how to apply for credit or to learn about possibilities for product diversification, market conditions for their products, product specifications established by state regulations or buyers, price, availability of inputs, transportation alternatives and schedules, and alternative techniques of production.

Decision-makers must also know to what extent resources to meet basic-needs deficiencies are hijacked by people in higher income strata who are not really in dire need: programs designed to alleviate poverty could be periodically reviewed to determine whether the targeted group is actually benefiting. Although this is a national matter, NGO s are strategically placed to provide information on how much benefit is being reaped by the very poor. Information can come through a rich variety of media, including printed matter, telephones, radios, personal contact, and computers.

The central idea is to use all practical information avenues to increase the exposure of the poor to comprehensible and useful information. The information should be structured and made intelligible to poor populations, and the flow of information should not be unidirectional. The international community, donors, NGO s, and state agencies all need to receive, process, analyze, and share locally collected data on quality-of-life indicators, the progress of development programs, and new opportunities for and challenges to achieving further technical learning and improvement in regions with low-income populations.

Furthermore, the international community must be the leader in monitoring technological progress in those areas likely to yield benefits to poor communities. When poor populations are introduced to technologies, the chances for successful outcomes are improved markedly if the prospective users are directly involved in selecting adequate technologies, properly adapting them to prevailing economic activities and conditions, disseminating the technologies among themselves, and mastering and.

Agents responsible for upgrading technologies and skills in poor communities should build a strong participatory dimension into such programs see UNCTAD , section B of chap. Participation in a more general sense could have equally important beneficial effects on innovativeness, incentive to risk experiments with new technologies, and ability to recognize opportunities inherent in market-oriented national and international economies. When poor populations are politically impotent and socially marginalized, these attributes are severely diminished.

The keys to participation are political empowerment and greater social integration of poor populations. Closely associated with these objectives is more decentralization of government to increase local decision-making. One of the most effective avenues for fostering participation is the decentralization of state functions, which frees and, indeed, obliges local communities to solve problems and to formulate and execute development policies. Governments should recognize the political, economic, and social benefits of both decentralized governance and the empowerment and social integration of poor populations and should implement actions supporting these objectives.

Special effort should be devoted to encouraging the participation of both men and women. Although all levels are involved in achieving these objectives, the linchpin is the engagement of intermediate and fundamental NGO s to help local organizations solve their own problems. This fits comfortably with the World Summit for Social Development emphasis on the goal of social integration, which was on the agenda of its session in Copenhagen in March Health, sanitary conditions, and, accordingly, life expectancy are fundamental indicators of basic-needs satisfaction.

Health, together with education, housing, and food, is a determining factor in the social position of low-income populations. Health problems in these populations show a specific pattern related to deficiencies and hazards originating in poverty. About 1 billion people live without adequate water and sanitation, which causes the spread of many of the most prevalent diseases in developing countries. Many health problems can be prevented, diagnosed, and treated with available and relatively simple and affordable equipment.

Work in the field of sanitation and waste management is proving critical through its promotion of technologies affordable to low-income communities, as is. Also, recent technology based on physical and engineering sciences has provided new health-care devices and techniques. However, many of these technologies are complex, costly, and technically demanding, particularly for developing countries.

Their effective introduction, use, and maintenance require sophisticated managerial, medical, and engineering talent, which points to the need to evaluate health priorities in allocating scarce resources. Such efforts require sustained support from the whole international community. Basic physical infrastructure is another critical pillar supporting the bridge between basic-needs deficiency and prosperity.

Infrastructure provides an environment in which innovative behaviour can be meaningful and facilitates the necessary inputs and the marketing of products. Many of the methods for providing basic infrastructure are already on the technology shelf; it is mainly a question of giving the priority and commitment to infrastructure that it deserves. Special attention should be directed to ease of obtaining water and fuel. This could, for example, reduce or eliminate the burdens falling disproportionately on women.

Clearly, the responsibility for infrastructure often rests with the state, but donors, especially those supporting the least-developed countries, can be extremely helpful in influencing priorities. Because infrastructure projects are almost always construction intensive, they may use local resources and generate work and income for unemployed or underemployed members of the local labour force.

In this respect, local and regional agencies can serve a useful function. In addition, long-term efforts might focus on studies investigating the feasibility of large-scale science and engineering projects. The more ambitious of these projects have included water-diversion schemes. Small-scale economic activities will, for the foreseeable future, be the primary source of employment and income for poor populations. As such they are one of the critical pillars of the bridge between unmet basic needs and prosperity. There is ample evidence that small loans.

Governments without adequate methods for delivering credit to these enterprises could investigate the experiences of countries with such mechanisms in place before initiating their own program. The primary impetus must be national, but international agents can be instrumental in conducting evaluative case studies of credit delivery to low-income entrepreneurs in developing countries. NGO s might be useful as screening agencies and conduits between the centrally provided credit and the borrowers.

However unintentionally, certain macroeconomic policies frequently affect both labour-intensive production techniques and smaller enterprises adversely Stewart ; Stewart et al. Because of the importance of the informal sector, governments should consider ways to reduce antagonism between players in the informal sector, the formal sector, and the state. Monetary and fiscal policies, as well as policies affecting trade, exchange rates, pricing, labour, and wage regulations, can be biased against MSME s.

Because of this it may benefit nations with poor populations to systematically examine their macro-economic policy and remove any unwarranted disincentives to the promotion of these enterprises. Other aspects are also critical, particularly technical assistance. This can include help with the identification of promising projects, feasibility studies, organization and management of an enterprise, the process of selecting technologies and using them efficiently, quality control, transportation, and marketing.

Regulatory provisions that hamper the technical progress of enterprises in the informal sector should be under scrutiny. Although the nation is the prime mover, international agencies could provide technical assistance when it is needed. Although all such measures could be implemented in fairly short order, in the long run technological progress is necessary, especially in emerging technologies that could usefully be blended with traditional production methods.

Particularly promising in this respect are new biotechnological innovations that tend to be scale neutral; new materials that can be used as inputs for small-scale manufacturers; nutritional enhancement of ORS ; new methods for direct casting and thin films for photovoltaics; long-range meteorological predictions of drought conditions; and information technologies suitable for poor communities. Replication of programs that effectively support MSME s could do a great deal to satisfy basic needs. The complete picture of poverty alleviation is complex, and alleviating poverty is a serious challenge, but the fundamental objective of technology for basic needs can be formulated very succinctly: to create participatory conditions that enable the poor to generate, have access to, comprehend, and creatively use technology to satisfy their basic needs.

Clearly, considerable interaction and complementarity occur among the six bridging elements. These elements should be introduced in concert rather than in isolation. The multiplicity of changes and trends that can be observed indicates that an accelerated, segmented, and uneven process of globalization is under way. The range and diversity of changes in many aspects of the international economy appear much greater at this juncture than at any other time in the last four decades.

At the root of this global transformation lie scientific advances and technological innovation, which act as enabling factors and exert pressure toward further globalization. Financial contributions from a number of governments, foundations, institutions, and individual donors are gratefully acknowledged. A brief examination of the main changes that are taking place may help us to appreciate the extent and depth of the transformation in the global order; establish the background against which the Commission on Science and Technology for Development CSTD has selected the substantive themes for its intersessional work; and reveal the common threads running through those themes.

The major transformations taking place in the patterns of world economic interdependence include the rapid growth and globalization of financial markets, fundamental changes in trade patterns, and deepening inequalities between rich and poor countries and between men and women. Growing interdependence and globalization — to some extent a consequence of advances in communication and information technologies IT s — have created not only opportunities, but also challenges.

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International financial markets now constitute a tight web of transactions involving global securities trading, arbitrage in multiple markets and currencies, portfolio investments through a bewildering array of international funds, and massive transborder capital movements. Changes have also occurred in the direction and content of international trade, as exemplified by the.

With the increasing interdependence of the world economy, movements toward political pluralism, popular participation, and democratic processes are rapidly becoming a fact of life. However, as indicated by persistent conflicts in countries with vastly different political and economic backgrounds, advances toward democracy, respect for human rights, and peaceful coexistence are by no means guaranteed.

Be that as it may, the new international political context is altering the balance in favour of democratic forms of governance. In this connection, the issue of governance has become a concern in recent years in both industrialized and developing countries, albeit for different reasons.

In industrialized countries, the causes of this may be traced to the changing norms of political and economic life; in developing countries, the problems have been intensified by the sharp contrast between the growth in social demands and the capacity of the institutional framework — including the institutions of the state, the private sector, and civil society — to satisfy them. Governance and. One reason for this was that investments were made in highly distorted policy environments, which prevented the benefits from materializing. Despite improvements in life expectancy and standards of living in many parts of the world in the past several decades, enormous economic differences between regions and countries and particularly between the industrialized and developing nations persist.

The absolute number of poor people in the world has continued to increase, and disparities between the rich and the poor have widened. In developing countries, the growth in social demands has been triggered largely by population increases in the last four decades. Coupled with a significant slowdown in population growth in the industrialized nations, this has led to a highly skewed worldwide distribution of social needs and capacities to satisfy them.

The dynamics of population growth strongly affect the demand for food, education, employment, housing, and other social benefits.

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Demands for food have multiplied many times over, particularly in the poorest countries; demands for basic health care and elementary education have expanded at a rapid pace; and unemployment has emerged as perhaps the most troublesome and persistent problem see Chapter 6. Another prominent and disturbing feature of the global social situation is the difference between the socioeconomic situations of men and women.

Despite continued efforts on behalf of women, gender discrimination remains widespread. In industrialized countries gender discrimination is evident in employment and wages; and in developing countries the greatest disparities, other than those in the job market, are to be found in education, health care, and nutritional support. These disparities persist, despite clear acknowledgment of the pivotal role that women play in education, health, and the household. Environmental concerns have also found a place at the top of the international public-policy agenda in the past two decades see Chapter 6 :.

The s and early s witnessed the emergence of truly global environmental problems, such as global warming and the depletion of the ozone layer, which underscored the danger that ecological instabilities could cause irreversible environmental damage. The problems of environmental sustainability and resource use are closely related to population growth and poverty in developing countries and to the often wasteful consumption habits of the rich nations.

Major changes in lifestyle will be essential in both groups of countries to address the problem of environmental sustainability in the transition to the 21st century. The Earth Summit, in Rio de Janeiro in , endorsed Agenda 21, a wide-ranging world program of action to promote sustainable development, although further negotiations on its implementation have brought to the fore the fact that industrialized and developing nations disagree about the best approach.

Since World War II the products of scientific research and technological innovation have become more and more deeply enmeshed in all aspects of human activity, and there have been profound modifications in the way knowledge is generated and used. Discrepancies like these, which have persisted for a long time, are a distinguishing feature of the emerging fractured global order. The role that knowledge now plays in the process of development is so critical that development could be redefined in terms of the capacity to generate, acquire, disseminate, and use knowledge, both modern and traditional.

The presence or absence of this capacity marks a crucial division between the developed and developing nations. As noted by Sagasti in Chapter 6 , significant cross-fertilization has taken place between scientific research, technological innovation, and the commercial exploitation of research results.

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Links between universities and industries are being strengthened; industrial research and technological alliances have become imperative in certain fields; and venture-capital firms and some specialized government agencies are playing a greater role in funding the commercialization of new technology. However, these very mechanisms have also become the Achilles heel of developing countries. Sagasti in Chapter 6 goes on to say that. The innovation process has changed significantly, particularly in science-intensive industries see Chapter 6 :. The costs of incorporating research results into goods and services and of bringing new products to the market have been steadily increasing in the past few decades.

In addition, innovation requires the support of a well-developed infrastructure, including a good network of roads,. Without this capacity no country will be able to formulate policies and strategies for achieving sustainable human development; absorb, adapt, and improve imported technology; or expect to develop its production potential, even in those areas where it has competitive advantages.

Indeed, the globalization of the world economy has broadened even further the gap between the poor and the nonpoor. Consequently, the benefits of globalization are shared unevenly among and within nations, thereby increasing marginalization both internationally and domestically. The deepening economic stagnation in the low-income countries — more specifically the plight of the very poor and women — is a cause for concern to governments and international organizations alike. The issues identified by CSTD at its first session reflect these concerns.

The challenge to the international community is to find ways to effectively support the most underprivileged groups, particularly women and the rural poor, and achieve sustainable human development. Efforts to meet this challenge will involve a commitment to provide all human beings, individually and collectively, with the opportunity to realize their full potential. Above all, this implies a determination to embrace and put into practice a new conception of sustainable human development. Therefore, sustainable human.

These four panels, together with working groups, functioned according to the new style adopted by CSTD for carrying out its intersessional work. Directors of study were appointed to design and coordinate the work plans of some of the panels. This new style encourages debate among CSTD members, who are responsible for preparing inputs, drafting reports, and following up on recommendations.

The following sections contain an overview of the salient conclusions reached by these four panels. Basic needs were defined as the minimal requirements for sustaining life: adequate nutrition, health services, water, and sanitary facilities. Also implied is access to elementary education and information to enable individuals and communities to be productive and make rational use of the basic goods and services available. In the course of its work, PTBN looked at food production and processing; education, especially technical and vocational training; and health care.

PTBN agreed that technology strategies, approaches, and policies rather than specific technologies and a pragmatic and pluralistic approach rather than a doctrinaire stance should be given priority. The rapidly evolving global order has fundamentally affected the problem of poverty and, to a great extent, the possibility of realizing.

The concern with technology transfer has now been superseded by a preoccupation with technological capacity-building. Moreover, with the trend toward decentralization and democracy, more of the poor populations are becoming involved in finding a solution to their own problems. This trend is thus creating a better climate for linking the satisfaction of basic needs with human rights.

The PTBN report placed its recommendations under six integrating themes: education, health, participation, small-scale economic activity, basic infrastructure, and access to information. The role of the United Nations in the implementation of the basic-needs objective is crucial. The United Nations could. Even at the close of the 20th century, women in developing countries, especially in the rural areas, are still finding it very difficult to meet their own basic needs and those of their households.

However, in the last three decades women in developing countries have become disproportionately poor in relation to the men in their communities. This difference between men and women cannot be understood without explicit reference to the gender-specific nature. The available data clearly demonstrate that women are underrepresented in scientific careers and decision-making bodies in both the developing and the industrialized countries.

These changes have affected men and women differently, but, overall, female labour has been displaced more than male labour. New jobs are more skill intensive than old jobs, and women have been at a disadvantage because training opportunities are more limited for women than for men. All governments are invited to subscribe to this declaration and to establish ad hoc committees to formulate national action plans to achieve these goals. The essential role of land resources in supporting all current and future human activities makes land management one of the primary tools in sustainable human development see Chapter 6.

The ILM panel agreed that managing land requires a holistic and integrated approach. An integrated approach to land management is not fixed; rather, it is a continuous and iterative process of planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating.

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The basic techniques for carrying out each of these steps are already available, but their application in many parts of the world is limited by training, financial, and institutional constraints. Diverse social, economic, and environmental considerations influence current and future land uses because land has multiple functions in society. Four major barriers to the effective global application of ILM methods were identified:.

The panel identified four approaches to the effective implementation of ILM :. Although most of these weaknesses are common to publicly funded RDI s in both developing countries and countries in transition, the two groups of countries are, nevertheless, different. IT s are widely believed to have a generic influence on the development of modern technologies, thereby determining the pace of social and economic progress.

However, their effects on the development process in general and the technological advancement of developing countries in particular are not yet fully understood. The Panel viewed basic needs as a dynamic concept, changing over time and varying from society to society. The many contributions made by individual members of the Panel reflect this diversity. The experiences presented by members of the Panel from Ethiopia, Togo, and Uganda merit particular attention.

In these three countries, the problem of extreme poverty is most dramatic. Of the economically active population, self-employed workers account for the overwhelming majority in the rural areas and for a great portion in the urban sector, as well. Health coverage, sanitary conditions, and, accordingly, life expectancy are at low levels, and educational facilities are scarce. Thus, Ethiopia, Togo, and Uganda are enhancing their technological capabilities through projects aimed at meeting the interests of low-income populations — particularly through increased agricultural productivity, stronger educational systems, and improved health facilities, water supplies, sanitation systems, and housing conditions.

Through these projects, a variety of science and technology inputs has been made available and adapted to various rural population. From Uganda, S. Kagoda provided the Panel with a presentation of similar ongoing projects designed to improve the standard of living of low-income populations.

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They addressed issues including. Designating responsibility to local residents, as well as regular consultations with them, contributed to the success of the projects. The Panel also considered some recent experiences from technologically advanced economies in transition. From Ukraine, Serguei L. Yampolsky, of the Ukraine State Committee on Science and Technologies, outlined directions for preserving and developing scientific and technological potential.

He suggested that technology policy should combine self-management with state planning and involve both producers and consumers in the process of developing national capacities. Linkages with the international scientific and technological community were also seen as important. According to the Ukrainian experience, particular emphasis should be given to vocational training as an element of a basic-needs strategy. From Japan, Mikoto Usui, in his contribution to the Panel, established the necessary linkages between local projects and global action in areas such as energy and water. The many individual presentations to the Panel reflected a diversity of approaches.

This section includes some of the full-length articles that were submitted. This paper examines the policy context for the appropriate use of technology to satisfy the basic needs of people living in extreme poverty in Latin American countries. I will point out the main tendencies of the democratic systems and economic policies in place in most of Latin America and suggest the main lines of responsibility in meeting basic social and familial needs. An economic policy is the result of the interaction of international and local factors, which regulate economic performance.

For this reason, I will begin with a summary of the external and internal tendencies that have had a decisive influence on the orientation and mechanisms of national development. During the last decade of this century, two tendencies have caused a deep transformation in the objectives, functions, and structure of the state in Latin America and, in consequence, of national development strategies. One, an external tendency, is a product of accelerated and unexpected change in the international economic and political systems.

The other, an internal tendency, is a consequence of the crisis of the s, the structural adjustment programs, and the reestablishment of democracy. Internationally, the collapse of socialist regimes in Eastern Europe, the end of the Cold War, and the triumph of democracy as a paradigm of political organization in modern society changed both the ideological debate and the perspectives on political development in Latin America.

Meanwhile, the process of globalization and internationalization of the market economy, affecting mainly the flow of information, knowledge, and money, strongly modified the conditions of economic operation in the region. A technological revolution at the root of this change has corroded the values of traditional comparative advantages, creating new, dynamic competitive advantages; this has led to a new international division of work and has set the conditions for building a system based on the production and distribution of knowledge.

However, changes in the international system, which are incomplete and fragmented, have not yet had their full effect. In consequence, it is difficult to predict with any certainty the future forms of political and productive organizations. At the national level in most of Latin America, the rebuilding of democracy revealed enormous faults in institutional structure that had been hidden or promoted by authoritarian governments; it also revealed the prevalence of ideological conflicts.

When issues such as the legitimacy of political representation, citizen participation, decentralization, and relations among state branches — to mention a few of the most important ones — reached the surface, they were greatly magnified in the mass media. In turn, the collapse of raw-materials prices and the external debt crisis at the beginning of the s led to public bankruptcy and revealed deep faults in the economic systems of Latin American countries, forcing governments to establish monetary stabilization programs and, furthermore, far-reaching structural adjustment plans that relied on external trade, liberalization of international finance, and a more important role for private enterprise in the productive and service sectors.

Different forms of market economy greatly increased the capacity for economic growth and accelerated the transformation of modern society. However, as experience has shown, when a capitalist economy becomes the dominant system it reinforces its secular inclination toward the concentration and unequal distribution of wealth, as much in the industrialized nations as in the developing world.

As both a cause and a result of poverty, marginalization has grown, excluding large sectors of populations from activity in the economic and democratic systems. The social confrontation and fragmentation brought about by this situation have been demonstrated in social protest in different countries and the growth of common delinquency in practically all major Latin American cities.

These external and internal tendencies have reopened the old problem of a dual society in Latin America. At the end of this century, there is more conflict about the issue than at the beginning. Even though events in this century have significantly improved the living standards of the majority of people — as evidenced by longer life expectancies, reduced mother and child mortality, and higher literacy rates — they have also widened the gap separating the high- and low-income groups. This situation has been seen before and is characteristic of the market economy, but it was worsened by the structural adjustment measures taken at the beginning of the s.

The phenomenon of a dual society does not necessarily mean an absolute polarization of the rich and the poor. In the groups suffering extreme poverty, the backwardness accumulates and promotes a structure that leads to even greater backwardness; this is a result of geographic and historical factors or shortages of resources, information, and knowledge. This is why, in most communities, poverty can almost be described as inherited: the children of the poor are born with a legacy of accumulated backwardness.

The effort needed to break the barrier of extreme poverty is much greater for these underprivileged groups than for impoverished communities that have no history of marginalization. Moreover, the poor are less and less involved in the process of cumulative production, because in practice they are outside the market. Whether they are unemployed in the cities or surviving on their little rural plots, they have no contact with the national economy at all.

In this sense, the poor can be distinguished from the exploited, because the poor are unable to generate surpluses for others to appropriate.

The rich and the rest of society do not depend on the work of or production by indigent workers and are consequently not worried about them. The risk of social fragmentation resulting from the resurgence of the dual society and from worsening problems of extreme poverty is grave, and it is greater than in the past. The poor are now aware of their poverty and marginalization. Until recently, poverty seemed to be part of the human condition and divine dispensation; things had always been that way, and it seemed they always would be. Nowadays, the. On the other hand, violence is the natural language of communication between the poor and the rest of society, for the poor live under constant pressure of brutality and abuse.

The end of the Cold War weakened or wiped out the hope of a socialist utopia, and the poor no longer join political organizations to change society by force. Some are seeking salvation in religious fundamentalism; others have no other option than delinquency, which is prevalent in almost all the marginalized belts around the major Latin American cities. The traditional guerrilla has been replaced by this chaotic and unpredictable one, who has created unbearable conditions for citizen security. Consequently, national development strategies, especially those resulting from the structural adjustment programs, give priority to the export-oriented modern sector.

The whole system — money and interest rates, commercial offerings, technology policy, and investment — is defined by this orientation. The main objective is to achieve a competitive reintegration of Latin America into the international economic system, even though this strategy has not yet developed beyond the opening, passive phase of policy implementation. Privatization efforts in Latin America and in a good part of the developing world differ in their objectives and rate of application but have the same goals of removing the state from any direct economic activity and of transferring or closing down public enterprise.

This is a unidirectional strategy, the success of which depends on the behaviour of the export sector and the ability of Latin American business people to meet the challenge. The fault in the strategy is that it intentionally or unintentionally ignores the problem of social disequilibrium. Instead, the strategy is formulated on the assumption that the economic growth produced in an open and competitive economy. The risks of social breakdown and citizen insecurity will grow to the point at which social coexistence becomes intolerable. This is why the strategy of a competitive and open economy, designed to reintegrate Latin American countries in the dynamic flow of contemporary society, requires a complementary, clearly defined strategy to eliminate extreme poverty and reestablish the feeling of solidarity essential to successful national projects.

Many of the instruments used to combat poverty and meet basic needs are incompatible or difficult to use with the new development strategy. For example, price-support mechanisms, state subsidies, tariff protection, and subventioned interest rates would conflict with the basic principles of this strategy or the conditions imposed by international financial organizations.

This difficulty also applies to public enterprise or state-owned agencies involved in the production of goods and services or technology. These considerations reveal the need to objectively identify the elements of a strategy to combat extreme poverty and meet the basic needs of the poorest sectors of the population. The strategy should not be in conflict with an open and competitive market economy. It will require direct action and constant support from the state.

Such a strategy will have to achieve social legitimacy. Moreover, in my view, a national development strategy that also helps the poor should focus on three central priorities: democratic participation, education, and small-scale enterprise.

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The concepts of poverty and marginalization are often confused because of their connotations, but they are distinct concepts. Poverty is the lack of resources or services necessary to survival; it is an economic concept. Marginalization, on the other hand, is the exclusion or. Poverty does not necessarily create marginalization, but marginalization almost always deepens poverty, even though it does not always create it. Marginalization can take many forms because exclusion can be on economic, ethnic, or class grounds. In nearly all cases, marginalization is very closely associated with indigence.

This is why the fight against poverty has to begin with the eradication of marginalization. Democratic participation is essential because it has a decisive influence on political power and consequently on the objectives and priorities of any national development strategy. The postulate of participatory democracy can no longer be regarded as unrealistic. Access to education and the revolution in communications media have greatly increased the potential for the whole of society to shape political power and community administration.

Marginalized populations should start to use these instruments, not only to enjoy the freedom guaranteed by the welfare state but also to assume responsibility for changing their role in society. Unlike traditional political participation, exercised individually at elections or through political parties, the participation of the poor in Latin America should be exercised collectively through traditional base organizations: communities, unions, and neighbourhood associations.

There is an unstoppable social demand for participation in economic and political activity. The citizen — that is, the central protagonist in democratic society — is determined to recover this source of power and sovereignty. This is essentially in contradiction to the objectives of the Latin American authoritarian and centralist political system. This is why the postulate of decentralization implies a horizontal and vertical redistribution of power and why the task of promoting participation is such a complex one. Other advantages of decentralization are efficiency in the assignment and use of resources, support for regional entrepreneurial spirit, and growth in local economic activity resulting from the growth in expenditures at the local level.

Usually, it is argued that the decentralization process will be hampered by a lack of technical and administrative experience at the regional level or by poor planning and execution of development projects at the local level. Decentralization means than certain sectors would clearly lose their benefits from economies of scale. With decentralization, central governments might try to distance themselves from local problems, arguing that this responsibility has been transferred to local levels of government. There are two possible results: growth in the gap between rich and poor regions and a risk of national fragmentation.

The risk of national fragmentation is the worst of these, without doubt. The risks of decentralization are greatest for the poor. The rest of society will be greatly tempted to forget the marginalized people and use decentralization as a way of evading the problem, particularly in the case of rural marginalization, distant from the urban centres.

To combat this, there must be an effective transfer of responsibilities to the base organizations of the marginalized peoples to foster local participation. At the same time, there will be a need for national society, the government, and international organizations to cooperate with these base organizations and supply the essential technological and financial resources. Education is without a doubt the most important of the basic social needs. It is defined by experts as a prerequisite for the productive and economic labour needed for survival.

Education affects all groups living in a common territory. Attending to this basic need for all children, youths, and adults in a way that guarantees free access, equity, sustained participation, and effective achievements in learning improves both the individual and society. Such education is a fundamental dimension of any social, cultural, or economic national project.

The effects of an educational policy go beyond those of any other human activity, including activities intended to promote health, the environment, productivity, employment, or competitiveness. Moreover, learning to learn is a critical requirement for development in a knowledge-based society. The exceptional growth of accumulated experience in contemporary society and the expansion of the communications media have greatly improved the capacity to offer basic education to everyone.

The World Declaration on Education for All of March states that this central objective must be reached through multisectorial plans, which may fix concrete goals in a set time, determine the priority of population categories, and establish indicators to measure the outcome. These plans must. Basic education is the responsibility of the whole of society. Apprenticeship is not produced in isolation.

The government must provide basic education for all, but it cannot be expected to do all the work; the community has a binding responsibility, along with the state. Certainly, the reduction or elimination of poverty and the satisfaction of basic needs cannot rely on the philanthropy of a few private agencies. In Latin American countries and in most developing nations, poverty is a problem that affects the structure of society, its cohesion, and its future, and for this reason it must occupy first place in strategic state affairs.

Furthermore, the state function in satisfying basic needs goes beyond the defensive attitude of trying to avoid social fragmentation and its consequences and becomes an important element in the training and administration of human resources, which are. In its national budget the state should assign the resources necessary to meet this responsibility. Tax policy takes on or reclaims an important role because it becomes the central mechanism for redistributing wealth and providing equal opportunity.

This role for a tax policy will become clear once a reduction has been made in funds to the state-owned enterprises engaged in the production of goods or services.

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International development organizations may play a critical role in social investment, education, and health, not only because of the volume of the development funds but also because of the capacity of these organizations to contribute knowledge as well. In addition to collecting and assigning resources to meet basic needs, particularly the need for education, the state has to ensure that these funds reach their goals. In other words, it has to focus on investment and social spending. The administration of investment and social spending is one of the conditions of success for the fight against poverty and should be under constant supervision, which is mainly the task of the potential benefactors, who must organize to demand their rights.

Basic social needs — such as education, health, basic infrastructure, and environmental protection — have common characteristics in Latin America but also involve specific problems, depending on different local characteristics and different levels of priority. Decentralization has a very important place in this strategy: it allows civilians to participate directly in the definition of political priorities and operative mechanisms and in the efficient and constant supervision of public-sector entities.

Among the different options for decentralization, the municipality is the most efficient venue for achieving participation and effective supervision. Direct participation of society — especially the poor — in economic activity is another necessity in the successful fight against poverty.

Biculturalism can allow for a healthy adaptation to life and school. With many new immigrant youth, a school district in Alberta, Canada has gone as far as to partner with various agencies and professionals in an effort to aid the cultural adjustment of new Filipino immigrant youths [18].

In the study cited, a combination of family workshops and teacher professional development aimed to improve the language learning and emotional development of these youths and families [19]. John W. Comparing three groups of 16 school districts, the loss was greater where the transition was from sixth grade than from a K-8 system. It was also greater when students from multiple elementary schools merged into a single middle school.

Students from both K-8 and middle schools lost achievement in transition to high school, though this was greater for middle school students, and high school dropout rates were higher for districts with grades middle schools than for those with K-8 elementary schools. The Jean S. Phinney Three-Stage Model of Ethnic Identity Development is a widely accepted view of the formation of cultural identity. In this model cultural Identity is often developed through a three-stage process: unexamined cultural identity, cultural identity search, and cultural identity achievement.

Unexamined cultural identity: "a stage where one's cultural characteristics are taken for granted, and consequently there is little interest in exploring cultural issues. Usually a person in this stage accepts the ideas they find on culture from their parents, the media, community, and others. An example of thought in this stage: "I don't have a culture I'm just an American. I've never lived there. Cultural identity search: "is the process of exploration and questioning about one's culture in order to learn more about it and to understand the implications of membership in that culture.

For some this stage may arise from a turning point in their life or from a growing awareness of other cultures. This stage is characterized by growing awareness in social and political forums and a desire to learn more about culture. This can be expressed by asking family members questions about heritage, visiting museums, reading of relevant cultural sources, enrolling in school courses, or attendance at cultural events.

This stage might have an emotional component as well. An example of thought in this stage: "I want to know what we do and how our culture is different from others. Cultural identity achievement: "is characterized by a clear, confident acceptance of oneself and an internalization of one's cultural identity. This usually leads to an increase in self-confidence and positive psychological adjustment [21].

There is a set of phenomena that occur in conjunction between virtual culture — understood as the modes and norms of behavior associated with the internet and the online world — and youth culture. While we can speak of a duality between the virtual online and real sphere face-to-face relations , for youth, this frontier is implicit and permeable.

On occasions — to the annoyance of parents and teachers — these spheres are even superposed, meaning that young people may be in the real world without ceasing to be connected. In the present techno-cultural context, the relationship between the real world and the virtual world cannot be understood as a link between two independent and separate worlds, possibly coinciding at a point, but as a Moebius strip where there exists no inside and outside and where it is impossible to identify limits between both.

For new generations, to an ever-greater extent, digital life merges with their home life as yet another element of nature. In this naturalizing of digital life, the learning processes from that environment are frequently mentioned not just since they are explicitly asked but because the subject of the internet comes up spontaneously among those polled.

The internet is becoming an extension of the expressive dimension of the youth condition. There, youth talk about their lives and concerns, design the content that they make available to others and assess others reactions to it in the form of optimized and electronically mediated social approval.

Many of today's youth go through processes of affirmation procedures and is often the case for how youth today grow dependency for peer approval. When connected, youth speak of their daily routines and lives. The connections they feel in more recent times have become much less interactive through personal means compared to past generations. The influx of new technology and access has created new fields of research on effects on teens and young adults.

They thus negotiate their identity and create senses of belonging, putting the acceptance and censure of others to the test, an essential mark of the process of identity construction. Youth ask themselves about what they think of themselves, how they see themselves personally and, especially, how others see them. On the basis of these questions, youth make decisions which, through a long process of trial and error, shape their identity. This article incorporates text from a free content work.

To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia , please see the terms of use. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Collective identity Conflict theories Cultural diversity Diaspora politics Globalization Intercultural competence Multiculturalism Nationalism Need for affiliation Pan-nationalism Pluralism Progressive politics Self-concept Self-determination Self-discovery Social identity Social identity theory Transculturation.

Close Encounters 5th Edition. Interventions: International Journal of Postcolonial Studies. New Political Science. The Apollonian Revolt. Archived from the original on 19 April Retrieved 10 April China Media Research. Archived from the original on Retrieved Language and Intercultural Communication. Alif: Journal of Comparative Poetics American Journal of Education.

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Retrieved 17 November Cultural Identity. Prakken Publications, Inc. Los adolescentes y las redes sociales. Life on the screen: Identity in the age of the Internet. The psychology of the Internet. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Challenging citizenship: group membership and cultural identity in a global age. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate.

Rotterdam: Publishers. The new European diasporas: national minorities and conflict in Eastern Europe. Development cooperation in a fractured global order: an arduous transition. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre. The city and the world: New York's global future.