Colorectal Cancer: Methods and Protocols

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CA Cancer J Clin. Miller KD, et al. Cancer treatment and survivorship statistics, Arndt V, et al. J Clin Oncol. Baker F, et al.

Adult cancer survivors: how are they faring? Understanding quality of life in patients with colorectal cancer: comparison of data from a randomised controlled trial, a population based cohort study and the norm reference population. Inflamm Res. Pettersson G, et al. Symptom prevalence, frequency, severity, and distress during chemotherapy for patients with colorectal cancer.

Support Care Cancer. Phipps E, et al. Quality of life and symptom attribution in long-term colon cancer survivors. J Eval Clin Pract. Schag CA, et al. Quality of life in adult survivors of lung, colon and prostate cancer. Qual Life Res. Caravati-Jouvenceaux A, et al.

Health-related quality of life among long-term survivors of colorectal cancer: a population-based study. The challenges of colorectal cancer survivorship. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. Di Fabio F, et al. Downing A, et al. Impact of bowel dysfunction on quality of life after sphincter-preserving resection for rectal cancer. Br J Surg. Jansen L, et al. Eur J Cancer. Nikoletti S, et al. Cancer Nurs. Ramsey SD, et al. Quality of life in long term survivors of colorectal cancer. Am J Gastroenterol. Schover LR, et al. Sexual dysfunction and infertility as late effects of cancer treatment.

EJC Suppl. Trentham-Dietz A, et al. Health-related quality of life in female long-term colorectal cancer survivors. Gamelin E, et al. Clinical aspects and molecular basis of oxaliplatin neurotoxicity: current management and development of preventive measures. Semin Oncol. Chambers SK, et al. A five-year prospective study of quality of life after colorectal cancer. Anxiety, depression, traumatic stress and quality of life in colorectal cancer after different treatments: a study with Portuguese patients and their partners. Eur J Oncol Nurs. Krouse RS, et al. Health-related quality of life among long-term rectal cancer survivors with an ostomy: manifestations by sex.

Lynch BM, et al. Describing and predicting psychological distress after colorectal cancer. Deimling GT, et al. Cancer-related health worries and psychological distress among older adult, long-term cancer survivors. Simard S, et al. Fear of cancer recurrence in adult cancer survivors: a systematic review of quantitative studies. J Cancer Surviv. Quality of life in survivors of colorectal carcinoma. Jefford M, et al. Evaluating a nurse-led survivorship care package SurvivorCare for bowel cancer survivors: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Russell L, et al.

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Psychological distress, quality of life, symptoms and unmet needs of colorectal cancer survivors near the end of treatment. Armes J, et al. Harrison SE, et al.

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Primary health and supportive care needs of long-term cancer survivors: a questionnaire survey. Salz T, et al. J Oncol Pract. From cancer patient to cancer survivor: lost in transition. Weaver KE, et al. Follow-up care experiences and perceived quality of care among long-term survivors of breast, prostate, colorectal, and gynecologic cancers. Optimal delivery of colorectal cancer follow-up care: improving patient outcomes.

Patient Relat Outcome Meas. Steele SR, et al. Practice guideline for the surveillance of patients after curative treatment of colon and rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum. Under use of necessary care among cancer survivors.

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Yang W, et al. Projected supply of and demand for oncologists and radiation oncologists through an aging, better-insured population will result in shortage. Cancer survivorship research among ethnic minority and medically underserved groups. Oncol Nurs Forum. Grunfeld E, et al. Comparison of breast cancer patient satisfaction with follow-up in primary care versus specialist care: results from a randomized controlled trial.

Br J Gen Pract. Follow-up of breast cancer in primary care vs specialist care: results of an economic evaluation. Br J Cancer.

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Randomized trial of long-term follow-up for early-stage breast cancer: a comparison of family physician versus specialist care. Evaluating primary care follow-up of breast cancer: methods and preliminary results of three studies. Ann Oncol. Routine follow up of breast cancer in primary care: randomised trial. Follow up in breast cancer: quality of life unaffected by general practice follow up. Wattchow DA, et al. General practice vs surgical-based follow-up for patients with colon cancer: randomised controlled trial. Baravelli C, et al. The views of bowel cancer survivors and health care professionals regarding survivorship care plans and post treatment follow up.

Cancer survivors in the United States: age, health, and disability. Yancik R, et al. Perspectives on comorbidity and cancer in older patients: approaches to expand the knowledge base. Grunfeld E, Earle CC. The interface between primary and oncology specialty care: treatment through survivorship. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. Ngune I, et al. Predicting general practice attendance for follow-up cancer care. Am J Health Behav. Models of cancer survivorship health care: moving forward. Models for delivering survivorship care. Rubin G, et al.

The expanding role of primary care in cancer control. Lancet Oncol. Emery J, et al. Protocol for the ProCare Trial: a phase II randomised controlled trial of shared care for follow-up of men with prostate cancer. BMJ Open. ProCare Trial: a phase II randomized controlled trial of shared care for follow-up of men with prostate cancer.

BJU Int. Organizing care for patients with chronic illness. Milbank Q. Improving primary care for patients with chronic illness: the chronic care model, part 2. Coleman MP, et al. Ouwens M, et al. Integrated care programmes for chronically ill patients: a review of systematic reviews. Colonoscopy is a macroscopic, optical examination, which includes visualization, localization and targeted biopsy of changes in colonic wall mucosa.

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By this method we are able to visualize all macroscopic changes, if necessary, stain and performed targeted biopsy with bioptic samples sent for histopathological analysis. The pathologist will give us a histologic diagnosis of lesions according to which we will be reflected the further treatment of the patient. If it is a case of lesion that affects the lumen of the intestine and becomes impassable for the instrument, to have had the insight on the length of infiltrative processes used by other methods such as barium enema, MRI rectum and pelvic CT and CT colonography bowel wall and abdomen.

This is an imaging method which by transverse tomography screening of layers produces a clear picture of organs or regions that are followed. Computed tomography CT is a computer reconstruction of one layer of the body plane. CT images are reconstructed from a large number of X-ray absorption measurements of the beams that passes through the patient. When measuring density of pathological process we measured the density of the middle of the process because the edges can give false absorption ratios.

Pathological lesions in relation to the organ in which they are found, as described isodens, hypo-or hyperdense relative to the targeted organ.

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  • In staging is essential to determine the thickness of wall malignancy or tumor penetration depth and the environment as well as metastasis in adjacent organs. Diagnostic methods which is necessary in rectal cancer staging. With this method we can gain insight into the depth of penetration into the wall or surrounding adipose tissue, lymph nodes and perirectal fascia.

    It is necessary to assess the surgery. CEA is an oncofetal tumor marker discovered Normal range is up to 2. In smoking population there are somewhat higher concentrations in serum. Elevated concentrations speak in favor of colon cancer. After the surgery it is normalized but in case of recurrences and metastases concentration increases. CA carbohydrate presents in the serum as a high molecular mucin rich with carbohydrates. It possesses clinical significance in pancreatic cancer and cancer of the gallbladder. Antigen is used in the diagnosis of rectal cancer and other parts of the colon, after the determination of CEA in serum and ovarian cancer, after measurement of CA CA can sometimes be a false positive and false negative.

    Colorectal Cancer - Methods and Protocols | Jean-François Beaulieu | Springer

    Higher values are found in patients suffering from liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis and diabetes mellitus. During the period from 2 years to determine the number of patients with colon cancer, with endoscopic methods verify and localize the tumor and its spread. Target lesion biopsy and histologic confirmation of the clinical diagnosis. Depending on localization changes, CT of the abdomen and bowel wall and MRI of the rectum and pelvis. The study was prospective and retrospective, performed at the Clinic of Gastroenterohepatology, Clinical Center of Sarajevo University.

    During the two-year follow-up, 91 patients were hospitalized underwent endoscopy, targeted biopsy and histologically was proven adenocarcinoma of the colon in which a pathologist determined grade of the cancers. Samples were eosin stained and pathological-histological analyzed. All patients according to tumor localization underwent CT scan of the abdomen and MRI of the rectum and pelvis.

    We want to be certain to diagnose metastases, then the depth of penetration into the bowel wall, the surrounding adipose tissue, adjacent lymph nodes and organs. MRI of the pelvis and the rectum enabled us to visualize the involvement of the perirectal fascia as well as the depth of penetration to other organs in the pelvis, towards bones and muscles.

    They were evaluated at the Institute of Biochemistry by Abbott immunoassay.

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    Immunoassay also determined the concentration of CEA antigen in the serum 2. The patients underwent targeted biopsy and bioptic samples were sent to the Institute of Pathology, where they were further cut, stained and analyzed with histologic tumor grade determination. Patients are put in correlation by sex, age and location of the tumor. CT was done for 64 patients and for 27 did not. Although in the two fields is located less than 5 elements, we performed chi-square test for dependence of columns and rows in a contingency table.

    The analysis does not include the colon transverse and testing the significance of differences was done for 63 patients for whom CT was done. In the same table are presented laboratory analysis of the CA which was not performed in 46 patients. Grade was calculated for 47 patients. The table shows that most patients had grade 2 and the localization at the rectum.

    Carcinoembryonic antigen CEA and Carbohydrate antigen Ca are well known as the most common tumor markers of colorectal cancer, while their levels are not used only in the preoperative assessment of tumor spread, but also for the monitoring of postoperative relapse. Combined data on the increase in value of preoperative CEA and CA levels may be helpful in predicting the prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer 3. In our sample, we analyzed data on colon adenocarcinoma in 91 patients, of whom 33 women and 58 men for a period of 2 years The results of our study also did not find any significant spread of colon cancer that is associated with tumors location.

    Therefore, the results of our research are consistent with the results of other published studies. Contributing Authors Berry, Richard Hansen and Georgina L. Ahmed, Nancy C. Ahmed, Mostafa M. Gouda, Paul W. Lin and Thomas J. Burgenske, David J.