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Health-related quality of life among long-term survivors of colorectal cancer: a population-based study. The challenges of colorectal cancer survivorship. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. Di Fabio F, et al. Downing A, et al. Impact of bowel dysfunction on quality of life after sphincter-preserving resection for rectal cancer. Br J Surg. Jansen L, et al. Eur J Cancer. Nikoletti S, et al. Cancer Nurs. Ramsey SD, et al. Quality of life in long term survivors of colorectal cancer. Am J Gastroenterol. Schover LR, et al. Sexual dysfunction and infertility as late effects of cancer treatment.
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Psychological distress, quality of life, symptoms and unmet needs of colorectal cancer survivors near the end of treatment. Armes J, et al. Harrison SE, et al.
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The expanding role of primary care in cancer control. Lancet Oncol. Emery J, et al. Protocol for the ProCare Trial: a phase II randomised controlled trial of shared care for follow-up of men with prostate cancer. BMJ Open. ProCare Trial: a phase II randomized controlled trial of shared care for follow-up of men with prostate cancer.
BJU Int. Organizing care for patients with chronic illness. Milbank Q. Improving primary care for patients with chronic illness: the chronic care model, part 2. Coleman MP, et al. Ouwens M, et al. Integrated care programmes for chronically ill patients: a review of systematic reviews. Colonoscopy is a macroscopic, optical examination, which includes visualization, localization and targeted biopsy of changes in colonic wall mucosa.
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By this method we are able to visualize all macroscopic changes, if necessary, stain and performed targeted biopsy with bioptic samples sent for histopathological analysis. The pathologist will give us a histologic diagnosis of lesions according to which we will be reflected the further treatment of the patient. If it is a case of lesion that affects the lumen of the intestine and becomes impassable for the instrument, to have had the insight on the length of infiltrative processes used by other methods such as barium enema, MRI rectum and pelvic CT and CT colonography bowel wall and abdomen.
This is an imaging method which by transverse tomography screening of layers produces a clear picture of organs or regions that are followed. Computed tomography CT is a computer reconstruction of one layer of the body plane. CT images are reconstructed from a large number of X-ray absorption measurements of the beams that passes through the patient. When measuring density of pathological process we measured the density of the middle of the process because the edges can give false absorption ratios.
Pathological lesions in relation to the organ in which they are found, as described isodens, hypo-or hyperdense relative to the targeted organ.
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In staging is essential to determine the thickness of wall malignancy or tumor penetration depth and the environment as well as metastasis in adjacent organs. Diagnostic methods which is necessary in rectal cancer staging. With this method we can gain insight into the depth of penetration into the wall or surrounding adipose tissue, lymph nodes and perirectal fascia.
It is necessary to assess the surgery. CEA is an oncofetal tumor marker discovered Normal range is up to 2. In smoking population there are somewhat higher concentrations in serum. Elevated concentrations speak in favor of colon cancer. After the surgery it is normalized but in case of recurrences and metastases concentration increases. CA carbohydrate presents in the serum as a high molecular mucin rich with carbohydrates. It possesses clinical significance in pancreatic cancer and cancer of the gallbladder. Antigen is used in the diagnosis of rectal cancer and other parts of the colon, after the determination of CEA in serum and ovarian cancer, after measurement of CA CA can sometimes be a false positive and false negative.
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Higher values are found in patients suffering from liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis and diabetes mellitus. During the period from 2 years to determine the number of patients with colon cancer, with endoscopic methods verify and localize the tumor and its spread. Target lesion biopsy and histologic confirmation of the clinical diagnosis. Depending on localization changes, CT of the abdomen and bowel wall and MRI of the rectum and pelvis. The study was prospective and retrospective, performed at the Clinic of Gastroenterohepatology, Clinical Center of Sarajevo University.
During the two-year follow-up, 91 patients were hospitalized underwent endoscopy, targeted biopsy and histologically was proven adenocarcinoma of the colon in which a pathologist determined grade of the cancers. Samples were eosin stained and pathological-histological analyzed. All patients according to tumor localization underwent CT scan of the abdomen and MRI of the rectum and pelvis.
We want to be certain to diagnose metastases, then the depth of penetration into the bowel wall, the surrounding adipose tissue, adjacent lymph nodes and organs. MRI of the pelvis and the rectum enabled us to visualize the involvement of the perirectal fascia as well as the depth of penetration to other organs in the pelvis, towards bones and muscles.
They were evaluated at the Institute of Biochemistry by Abbott immunoassay.
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Immunoassay also determined the concentration of CEA antigen in the serum 2. The patients underwent targeted biopsy and bioptic samples were sent to the Institute of Pathology, where they were further cut, stained and analyzed with histologic tumor grade determination. Patients are put in correlation by sex, age and location of the tumor. CT was done for 64 patients and for 27 did not. Although in the two fields is located less than 5 elements, we performed chi-square test for dependence of columns and rows in a contingency table.
The analysis does not include the colon transverse and testing the significance of differences was done for 63 patients for whom CT was done. In the same table are presented laboratory analysis of the CA which was not performed in 46 patients. Grade was calculated for 47 patients. The table shows that most patients had grade 2 and the localization at the rectum.
Carcinoembryonic antigen CEA and Carbohydrate antigen Ca are well known as the most common tumor markers of colorectal cancer, while their levels are not used only in the preoperative assessment of tumor spread, but also for the monitoring of postoperative relapse. Combined data on the increase in value of preoperative CEA and CA levels may be helpful in predicting the prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer 3. In our sample, we analyzed data on colon adenocarcinoma in 91 patients, of whom 33 women and 58 men for a period of 2 years The results of our study also did not find any significant spread of colon cancer that is associated with tumors location.
Therefore, the results of our research are consistent with the results of other published studies. Contributing Authors Berry, Richard Hansen and Georgina L. Ahmed, Nancy C. Ahmed, Mostafa M. Gouda, Paul W. Lin and Thomas J. Burgenske, David J.